I’ve been combing back through a number of different posts lately, and seeing what areas we’ve covered in some detail (hoodoo, rootwork, and Pow-wow, mostly), which ones we’ve done some basic delving into (mountain magic and general witchcraft), and which ones we’ve only just barely touched upon (pretty much everything else). I was very surprised that I’d not covered today’s topic more, as it’s one of the topics with which I have a good bit of practical experience. But for some reason, I’ve only mentioned curanderismo and its ‘darker’ sister brujeria a few times.
And so today, I thought it might be good to remedy that deficiency somewhat. We’ll be giving these traditions only the most basic of examinations, as a deeper exploration of either could easily fill several dozen books and websites. Yet there are relatively few texts or webpages which look at these practices. Partly this may be a linguistic barrier (my Spanish is intermediate-level at best), but honestly I think this may just be an area where research is thin on the ground. I’d love to be proven wrong in that, though, so if you know of some good research on these traditions, please leave a comment and/or link.
To begin, let’s look a bit at curanderismo. This is a system of magical healing, blessing, and cleansing largely centered around Catholic prayers and rituals, with a heavy infusion of folk religion and magic and a bit of herb lore in some cases. A male practitioner is a curandero, while a female practitioner is a curandera. Many of the rituals within this tradition have to do with detecting and undoing evil witchcraft (which is called brujeria by curanderos, which gets a bit confusing…more on that later). In Mexico, where this practice is centered—though there are ever-increasing numbers of practitioners in other Central and North American locations, a person might call upon a curandero if a family member seems to be plagued with some uncommon illness, or if their house seems to be exhibiting symptoms of a haunting, or if they are feeling as though a general run of bad luck has settled onto them. One of the best resources on curanderismo on the internet is Dona Concha of the Curious Curandera website. In the introductory material for one of her many excellent courses, she includes this summary of the practice:
Curanderismo is not only a form of folk healing, it also includes the practice white magic, ritual, cleansings, energy work, spirit contact, divination, and a vast amount of prayer just to name a few. While some practitioners prefer to engage only in one area, others work in all areas.
Curanderismo is a very spiritual practice with strong religious faith. Practitioners use a variety of objects including herbs, spices, eggs, lemons, limes, Holy Water, Saints, Crucifixes, prayer, candles, incense, oils and divination tools. Most include spirit assistance. Not all practitioners work in the same way. For example, one person may perform a spiritual cleansing with a raw unbroken egg while another may employ a bundle of herbs for the cleansing tool.
While a curandera might perform rituals that help remove bad luck or might contact specific spirits (usually angelic or “holy” ones), they tend to shy away from any ‘dark’ magics.
Brujeria, on the other hand, means literally “witchcraft,” and is frequently perceived in a negative light. This system, however, is not entirely dissimilar from hoodoo, with a focus on practical, earthier types of magic: love, money, sex, etc. What gives brujeria its bad reputation is its association with “magia negra” or “black magic.” While both curanderismo and brujeria can work with “magia blanca” (“white magic”) to provide cures, healing, and good luck, only brujeria works with things like spirit summoning and necromancy to achieve its aims. Brujo Negro, who runs a fantastic site on brujeria (and whose name means “black witch”), explains magia negra as an extension of the grimoire magic imported by the Spaniards during the 16th century. He also points out that the native peoples of Mexico—the Nahua, the Xolotl, etc.—did not particularly have concepts of “good” and “evil,” and so the concept of a branch of magic entirely in the service of evil would have been alien to them. Instead, the “healer physician” figure (anthropologically referred to as a “shaman” in many circles) would use his or her knowledge of natural materials and forces—herbs, roots, stones, and animal parts—to craft specialized remedies for community members struck with strange illnesses. The Spaniards did not always understand what the natives were doing, and viewed them and their practices warily.
The use of grimoire magic, talismans, spirit invocations, and other spells which did not explicitly call upon Christian paradigms to accomplish their goals led to opposition between the brujos and the curanderos. This is not all that different than the supposed wars between the benandanti and the witches of Italy, which Carlo Ginzburg has catalogued incredibly well in his book The Night Battles. In truth, both groups were likely working—in general—for the good of their communities, though the brujos might occasionally use more aggressive magic to do their work and likely were a little saltier about the spiritual side of their practice. Another group of magical practitioners (which may be the equivalent of fairy-tale witches or malevolent wizards or folklore) may well have engaged in exclusively cursing practices and malevolent magic, in which case either a brujo or curandero might be called in to do battle with the wicked sorcerer, again demonstrating that the line between the two camps is a fuzzy one at best.
The historical presence of folk magic among Hispanic communities goes back centuries, and while it shares certain commonalities with the European colonial experience along the Atlantic, it also strongly resembles the African experience in America. Contact between native peoples and the new arrivals was relatively high, and cultural exchange was fluid, if not officially indulged:
New Mexico witchcraft cases reveal a variety of features of colonial life in New Mexico that did not exist in other colonized areas of North America. For example, they show the physical proximity in which the Indians and Europeans lived and the increasingly intertwined beliefs they shared—about power, about magic, about healing, and about witches. These characteristics of New Mexico society were especially pronounced after the Spanish returned to the colony in 1706. Witchcraft was so much a part of New Mexico in the eighteenth century that Ramon A. Gutierrez has suggested that it was one of the three main issues that affected life there…Nothing comparable exists among the surviving records in British or French North America, at least as far as indigenous people are concerned” (Games 34-5).
This is not to say that relations were necessarily sunny between the natives and the conquering Spaniards, but the level of integration between Old World and New World beliefs seemed to flow both ways, with people like the Xolotl eventually adapting to the Catholic pantheon of saints and the rituals of the church, while the Spaniards sought out community healers for their ethereal gifts. Witch trials can and did erupt, but seldom with the vigor found in New England (or even old England). The veneer of Catholicism covered a variety of magical practices and set them in an ‘appropriate’ religious context, though in practice healings were still being done through the agency of plants, spirits, and other magical tools.
So just what does a curandero or bruja do nowadays? Much of what brujos and curanderas do resembles another magical practice heavily rooted in Catholicism, that of stregheria (or, more specifically, the cousin tradition of streghoneria), which come from Italy. I hope to dig into this question a bit more in other posts, but it might be good to look at some earmark practices common to one or both traditions, so that you can recognize it when you see it. In both, you are likely to find:
- Divinatory practices – Sometimes by cards, but just as often by very specific items like eggs broken into a glass of water or the ashes left by a smoldering cigar.
- Saint magic – Calling upon the intercessory power of saints to accomplish specific tasks. This is usually accompanied by rituals such as candle-burning and prayer.
- Statuary or charms – This goes hand-in-hand with saint magic for the most part, though other types of charms like milagros (little pewter, silver, or gold charms shaped like hearts, body parts, animals, etc. and used as devotional offerings) are also frequently used.
- Ritual cleansing – Especially using holy water or natural elements, like eggs, limes, lemons, etc. This can be done on a person or on a specific place.
- Liturgical prayers – These are used outside of the orthodox liturgy, and are usually repeated several times to gain their benefit in magical settings. Examples include the “Our Father,” or “Ave Maria” prayers.
- Novena candles – These are easily found in places with large Hispanic populations, and usually have a pillar candle encased by glass with a picture of a saint, angel, or other holy being on them. On the back they typically have short prayers (often in Spanish and English) which are recited while burning the candle.
In the individual practices, the magic may lean more heavily towards one or another of these categories. Certain folk saints are deeply revered by one group and not the other, or sometimes revered by both groups in different ways. A great example of this different-but-the-same relationship is Santa Muerte (“Holy Death”), a powerful spirit both loved and feared throughout Mexico. She’s a big enough topic for her own post at some point, so I’ll just leave that mention as a tease for the moment. As I mentioned earlier, brujeria resembles hoodoo fairly strongly, so there are lots of roots, bones, and rusty nails found in it, while herbal preparations for healing and cleansing tend to be more heavily emphasized in curanderismo.
All of this is simply the lightest scratch across the surface of a very deep subject. I hope to provide more and more information through other posts at other times, and even then I’ll only really be getting at a fairly superficial understanding of this incredible set of traditions and practices. For now, though, I hope this has been a useful magical appetizer.
Thanks for reading!
12 thoughts on “Blog Post 134 – Brujeria and Curanderismo: A (Very Brief) Overview”
Coming from a heavily Catholic family, curanderismo type practices seem really hard to distinguish for me from what I grew up knowing as the normal practices of Catholicism. I remember when I tried to leave the Church as a teenager, my grandfather asked me why. He said, “don’t you love Jesus and Mary and the saints?” I said yes of course I do. He said “what, you think you’re some kind of pagan”? I said I don’t know, something like that. He said “if you’re a pagan who loves Jesus, you’re a Catholic! Now say 10 Hail Marys!”
Hahaha! I had a somewhat similar experience growing up, Rebecca. The Catholicism definitely has a magical flavor to it in a lot of households. Your grandfather’s response, though, is just priceless!
Thanks for sharing it!
I’ve noticed that quite a bit of the American folk magic seems to stem from Catholicism. Is it because the areas it originated were over run by missionaries? I think about the transplanted Africans and those from other areas that were forced into slavery and had their original belief systems abolished. Did they already had the christianity influence, but were still grasping at their original earth centered type of beliefs of healing, etc.?
I find the blend interesting as in my Native American studies, the blending does not seem to exist very much. Those that had or have “converted” completley left their originating culture beliefs. Those that choose not to (or those pretending to convert until the pressure was off) are completely immersed in the originating belief paths (this is somehat general as just like any other culture, there are those that do not care one way or the other about their past or beliefs). But the blending of “old ways” and christian views in practiceis, as far as I can see, very, very limited. I have actully yet to talk or meet an NA that does blend although I am sure they are out there.
Oh fyi, I just started my Sociology class for my BS and we will be discussing religion for about a week. I plan on mixing up that brew pot in some of those discussions!
Sorry for the typos readers, it was pretty early for that much deep thought :>)
Jim Haskins in his book Voodoo & Hoodoo points out that Catholicism offered much more fertile ground for transplanting of African magic and religion. Lacking saints, archangels or the Virgin Mary, Protestantism provided little raw material for displaced Africans to map their beliefs to. As they were unable to be practiced or taught openly, the old practices died away within a generation. (And as the British ended the slave trade early, their slaves did not have the constant introduction of newly-arrived Africans to keep the memory alive.) Also life on the slave plantations was less tightly-controlled in the Spanish and French colonies, so there was more opportunity for African practices to be continued in secret.
As for the reason why a similar sycretism never developed among Native North Americans, in spite of the heavy Roman Catholic influence on them (at least here in Canada), I can only assume it must be that their spiritual practices did not intersect with church dogma as easily as it did for the Africans. But such blending of Catholic ritual with traditional spirituality does nonetheless occur, in forms such as the Lac Ste-Ann pilgrimage. (http://www.lsap.ca/) Outwardly orthodox Catholic in form but unmistakably indigenous in content.
Hi Chet and Wulf,
Yes, I think that the Catholic ritualism really allowed magical practices to flourish within the constructs of folk practice. The Church frequently looked the other way as long as people nominally (and financially) supported the overall dogma and operations of the Church institution (not always, of course…there were plenty of situations where that was not true, too).
I’d really have to dig into the question about Native Americans and Catholicism, as I think that in many places they *did* show signs of syncretism (especially in places like Central America, where the Spaniards really pushed Catholicism on the Natives). Those places developed rich magical traditions of their own which are only now being explored and understood, so maybe the question is still open to examination?
At any rate, a fascinating discussion! Thanks for keeping the conversation going, fellas!
All the best,
Thanks so much for this (and all) post! Sometimes I find those Southerly witchraft practices and traditions to be quite confusing, most likely because I forget which title belongs to which group of people, lol. Being in Canada, there isn’t a huge Hispanic population, so all I get is TV.
Thanks again for all the wonderful posts shedding light on what exactly it is New World witches do! And the podcast is absolutely wonderful! 🙂
Thanks so much Mia! I’m glad you found this post and the show useful 🙂 We aim to please!
I’ll be posting more on these topics over time, though work has had me busy enough lately that I don’t get time to write like I should. But hopefully I’ll be able to stay on task and keep the info coming!
All the best,
Thanks for the post. Interestingly enough in the Bravo (spanish grocery store chain) down the road they have a Santa Muerte pillar candle in their jar candle stock… of course this is the same store I saw a jar pillar candle with an African mask and the name Obatala emblazoned upon the candle…
Ever run into such things in your travels?
Peace, and curiosity,
Yes! I actually know of at least one international grocery in my area which carries those sorts of candles (I remember seeing an Elegua one and stopping to examine the rest, discovering that I’d hit on a treasure trove). My guess is that in most of the bodegas you can find at least a few saint candles, and I know you can find them even in mainstream grocery stores in my area (though not the more esoteric ones…usually just Guadalupe, Sacred Heart, Guardian Angel, a few Saints, and occasionally a Just Judge one). Glad to know that it’s not just my area, though!
Thanks for sharing that!
Hrm… You know your practicing New World Witchery when you need to stock up on supplies and more than half of your supply spots are grocery stores of one stripe or another?
Lol, I agree! And bodegas are WAY cheaper than metaphysical shops!
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